Words are our Best Weapon Against the Lies of History (Truth in the Root of the Word).
CHRONOLGY of THE PAPAL BULL
Fear Not. This creature’s time has run its course. Anyone with this much disregard for Natural Law is DOOMED!
THE PAPAL BULL: A Papal Bull is a form of charter (formal letter) issued under the authority of the Pope. The name refers to the unique lead bulla (seal) which was used to authenticate the document. Papal Bulls have many features in common with Germanic diplomas, both having originated from forms of Roman Imperial documents, and both having developed in parallel. Papal Bulls recorded the granting of privilege or issued instructions. Continuing a tradition from the Roman Empire, they were documents of great formality, and over the centuries developed a range of elaborate symbolic features. (what does the above image look like to you???)
*13th Century Crusades Era – King Alfonso X Incorporates the Las Siete Partidas (Seven Division of Laws) into Castilian law, one division explicitly referring to the Granting of Political and Territorial jurisdiction to a Monarch by “Papal donation.”
*January 8, 1455 – The papal bull Romanus Pontifex is issued by Pope Nicolas V to King Alfonso V of Portugal.
*May 4, 1493 – The papal bull Inter Caetera is issued by Pope Alexander VI to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.
*September 26, 1493 – The papal bull Dudum Siquidem is issued by Pope Alexander VI. Confirms the bull Inter Caetera, and revokes (revocamus) all earlier papal grants to Portugal which might give her a claim to westward lands.
*November 1493 – Indigenous resistance to Inter Caetera begins. The indigenous peoples on the island of Quisqueya (“Hispaniola”) valiantly resist the Spanish intrusion. The cacike (chieftain) Caonabo leads a retaliatory military campaign against the thirty-nine Christians left behind by Columbus at La Navidad after atrocities committed by them. All thirty-nine are found dead upon Columbus’ return. Later, indigenous Caribbean peoples publically reject the “papal donation” stating “the pope had no right to give what was not his to give”.
*June 7, 1494 – Spain and Portugal sign Treaty of Tordesillas based on the bull Inter Caetera. The Treaty divides the world in half between the two nations, and is the foundation for subsequent treaties and custom relating to the Americas.
*June 2, 1537 – Pope Paul III issued the Papal Bull Sublimis Deus, which supposedly “freed the Indians,” and is regarded as “the most important papal pronouncement on the human condition of the Indians” (Gutirrez, “Las Casas,” 1993). However, as history unequivocally shows, Sublimis Deus is purely a theoretical act since there would be no need for an accounting of those declared to be “extinct,” nor for the thousands who had been eliminated by the end of the 16th century.
*June 19, 1538 – Pope Paul III revoked Sublimis Deus at the urging of Spanish Emperor Charles V. However, there is controversy as to whether the Pope actually revoked Sublimis Deus or the brief Pastorale Officium of May 29, 1537. Revoked or not, it should be made clear that Sublimis Deus did not revoke Inter Caetera (Boyle, 1998, 1999).
*1542 – The “New Laws” that had prohibited Indian slavery and banned the encomienda (slavery system) were revoked.
*1823 – In the Johnson v. McIntosh case, U.S. Chief Justice John Marshall blatantly inserts language of “discovery” based on the bull Inter Caetera into the decision.
*1831– In Cherokee v. Georgia, Justice Marshall rules that the Cherokee Nation was not a “foreign state” as defined in the U.S. Constitution, and therefore they could not sue the state of Georgia in the Supreme Court from usurping the gold on their land.
*1992 – A formal movement to revoke the bull Inter Caetera is initiated by the Indigenous Law Institute based in the United States.
*1993 – At the Parliament of the World’s Religions in Chicago, Illinois, sixty indigenous delegates draft a Declaration of Vision calling for the revocation of the bull Inter Caetera.
*October 12, 1997 – An annual papal bulls burning commenced in Honolulu, Hawai’i calling international attention to the papal bulls issue.
*October12, 1998 – Over 50 indigenous and human rights advocates gather in Honolulu to demand the revocation of the bull Inter Caetera, and called for it to be revoked by the year 2,000, or by the beginning of the “new millennium”.
*November28, 1998 – Pope John Paul II called “Christianity’s 2,000 anniversary a year of mercy,” as reported by AP, saying “the church will seek forgiveness,” “atonement,” and that he “wants the church to enter the third millennium with a clear conscience.”
*February19, 1999 – The United Church of Christ, Hawai’i Conference, passes a resolution which resolves that: “President Paul Sherry on behalf of the United Church of Christ urges and calls upon people of conscience in the Roman Catholic hierarchy and in other organized religions to persuade Pope John Paul II to revoke the Papal Bulls Dum Diversas of 1452 [Romanus Pontifex of 1455] and Inter Caetera of 1493 by the year 2,000.”
*May 1999 – At the international Hague Appeal for Peace conference, Tony Castanha (Carib/Boricua) and Steve Newcomb (Shawnee/Lenape) directly address and call for the revocation of the bull Inter Caetera on both “Interfaith” and “Root Causes of War/Culture of Peace” panel presentations.
*October 2000 – Indigenous Peoples’ Delegation (nine delegates) converge on Italy and the Vatican advocating for the revocation of Inter Caetera. Delegates meet with official from the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace.
*2001– Pontifical Historical Commission studies the issue for the first time and rules that “Inter Caetera is no longer juridically valid.” Kosmos Indigena founded. Continues to call on the Vatican to revoke Inter Caetera if it is no longer juridically valid.
*October 2003 – Seventh annual papal bulls burning observed in Honolulu, Hawai`i, as well as other locations around the world. Call is made to return to Rome in October 2005.
Read the webpage version of the “Appeal to the Vatican and Pope John Paul II” at: http://www.uctp.org – Click on “Hawai`i.”
IMPORTANT Press Release:
The landmass and all its regions are now called Northern Lands, a sovereign (non-state) under the authority of Indigenous Land Owner, Ancient Royalty Sovereign Crown Denderah.
Email / Fax Press Release to Media outlets, Newspapers, Companies, Websites to update the regions listings.
*Norwegians Evacuation and Removal Announcement
– February 25, 2015
Northern Lands Sovereign Crown Denderah Issues Edit – February 20, 2015
A Compass Change for Norway: New role for Norwegians – February 16, 2015
*Norwegian Government Shutdown– February 13, 2015
Indigenous Land Owner Repossess Norway –January 26, 2015
Norway Ordered to Stop Drilling – January 21, 2015
Norway loses $860 Billion Sovereign Wealth Fund to
Indigenous Land Owner – November 13, 2015
Norway Forfeits All Lands and All Resources – November 07, 2014
Nazi Experiments leads to Decolonization of Norway – October 30, 2014
Decolonization Declared (video) – October 23, 2014
[See Comment Section for further details]
When Christopher Columbus set sail from Spain in 1492, he was locked into a geographical view of the world which did not anticipate a continent between Europe and Asia. He had set sail for India-a 15th century concept which referred to southern China and southeastern Asia-so when he landed on some islands he assumed that he was off the coast of Asia. On behalf of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he claimed the land and the people for Spain, conveniently ignoring native government and native ownership of the land.The population of the Americas in 1492 is estimated to be 100 million, as compared with 70 million in Europe.
Historical American icon, Christopher Columbus, and his brother Bartholomew, mass murdered some two million of the Taino people on the island of Hispaniola in just four dyers, In their quest to kill and torture as many people as possible they built extremely wide gibbets, hanging victims with feet barely touching the ground amidst fire caused a slow strangling burning death.
Europeans were not known for their religious tolerance. The day before Columbus left Spain, all of the Jews in Spain were required to leave. During the time that Columbus was preparing for his voyage, an estimated 30,000 Spanish Jews were burned at the stake for their failure to convert to Catholicism.The Taíno were the first Native Americans to encounter the Spanish. Columbus recorded in his diary that the natives “would easily be made Christians because it seemed to me that they had no religion.”After Columbus had returned to Europe and word of his discoveries reached the royal courts of Portugal and Spain, there were heated debates over the ownership of the new lands. Pope Alexander VI stepped in to solve the dilemma. Papal bulls by Pope Alexander VI granted Spain and Portugal all of the lands in the Americas which were not under Christian rule. Thus began the European assumption that the native people of the area did not really own the land because they were not Christian.
The Pope decreed,
|“barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself.”|
|The Inter Caetera papal bull by Pope Alexander VI stated:|
|“We trust in Him from whom empires, and governments, and all good things proceed.”|
This laid the legal foundation for assuming that government comes only from the Christian god and therefore Christian nations have a legal right to rule over non-Christian nations. The late Vine Deloria in his “Afterword,” for America in 1492: The World of Indian Peoples Before the Arrival of Columbus wrote:
“Thus armed with a totally bogus title issued by God’s representative on earth, the Spaniards then began a brutal conquest in the Americas which virtually obliterated the native populations in the Caribbean within a generation.”
The discovery of Indians presented some problems for Europeans since they were not mentioned in the Christian Bible: the Native Americans did not fit within orthodox Christianity’s explanation of the moral universe.
At the time of first contact with the Spanish, the Taíno world stretched across the Caribbean Islands for more than a thousand miles. The Taíno, part of the Arawak language group, had arrived on the islands more than 2,000 years earlier from South America. By 700 CE, they occupied the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. They then pushed into the Greater Antilles-Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Cuba.
In South America, the Arawak-speaking ancestors of the Taíno had a lifestyle that centered around the growing of manioc and other root crops, hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plants. This lifestyle adapted to the islands and the sea, rather than separating them, seemed to unite them. They had ocean-going canoes which could hold as many as a hundred people. Voyages between the islands were common place. Marriage between the lineages of the different islands was also common and helped build a unifying network of kinship relations. (This is very different from the European practice of marriage, which usually takes place between relatives.)
Another unifying element among the Taíno was the ball game. The game, which was also found in Mesoamerica and part of South America, was played using a rubber ball on courts with stone or earthen embankments. As in Mesoamerica, the ball was struck primarily with the hips. For the Taíno, the game was the focus of religious festivals, feasting, trade, intermarriage, and the peaceful resolution of conflicts.
The political power of Taíno leaders stemmed from: (1) the mother’s lineage (very different from that of European monarchs), (2) having a special relationship with the supernatural, and (3) political acumen. A “chief” (this is a European leadership term) could be deposed by his brothers or nephews.
When Columbus landed on the island of Hispaniola, Guarionex was one of the five most powerful Taíno leaders with followers numbered in the tens of thousands scattered over hundreds of square miles.
By 1495, the Spanish who had originally been welcomed by the Taíno, had managed to alienate their hosts. Guarionex and the other Taíno leaders decided that they had had enough and tens of thousands of Taíno warriors (some reports claim a hundred thousand) gathered to do battle with 200 Spaniards. The battle was unlike anything that the Taíno had ever experienced. It began with twenty Spanish warriors, fully armored and riding war horses through their ranks inflicting great damage with their swords and lances. Then foot soldiers fired their guns, a terrifying weapon to those who had never encountered it. Finally, the Spanish set loose their large dogs, trained to kill humans, upon the Taíno warriors. The Spanish goal seemed to be to kill as many Taíno as possible, a goal that was unheard of in the traditional warfare on the islands.
Following their defeat, the Taíno accepted their status as Spanish subjects. They agreed to pay tribute in the form of food, cotton, and gold. The Spanish demanded that every man over the age of 14 provide them with a little copper bell filled with gold every three months. Providing gold, however, was not the greatest hardship on the Taíno: the Spanish were eating them out of house and home. Not only did the Spanish seem to eat far more than the Taíno, but they also ate the manioc that wasn’t ready to be harvested. The result was food shortages and starvation for the Taíno.
Columbus viewed the Taíno themselves as a way to amass his personal wealth. He selected 500 to be exported to Spain as slaves, and 500 to serve as slaves to the Spanish on the Island. Columbus proudly boasted to the Spanish monarchs about the slave potential and its economic benefits. Columbus would capture and export more Indian slaves-about 5,000 — than any other single individual. In addition to capturing the Indians as slaves, the Spanish also hunted the Indians for sport and slaughtered them for dog food. The Spanish also viewed Taíno women as their sex slaves.
By 1497, the combination of starvation, European diseases, and Spanish brutality had reduced the Taíno numbers (reduced, NOT eliminated ). Christopher Columbus was neither a good leader, nor particularly charismatic. Many of his men hated him. As a result, the Spaniard Francisco de Roldán led a small army of anti-Columbus soldiers. He encouraged the Taíno leaders, including Guarionex, to join with them in defeating the other Spanish.
Don Bartolomé Colón, the brother of Columbus, was a better leader and had, in fact, learned to speak some Taíno. Bartolomé moved against the incipient rebellion by staging a midnight raid on the Taíno villages, a serious breach of Taíno war etiquette, and capturing as many Taíno leaders as possible. They killed the leaders in the traditional Spanish style: they burned them alive.
Traditionally, Taíno leaders not only directed their warriors in battle, but more importantly they mediated with the spirit helpers to ensure victory. Without their leaders, the Taíno warriors were in chaos and soon surrendered.
The destruction of the Taíno political system, coupled with the demands for tribute and the devastating impact of disease and starvation, led to the virtual extinction of Taíno society on Hispaniola by 1500.
While there are some historians and pseudo-historians who point to Christopher Columbus as an example of perseverance, courage, and Christian faith, there are others who feel that his legacy, from a Native American viewpoint, is one of genocide and slavery.
Spoken of the Taino People:
…The sailor relates that in Utopia neither money nor private property exists. There, scorn for gold and superfluous consumption is encouraged, and no one dresses ostentatiously. Everybody gives the fruits of his works to the public stores and freely collects what he needs. The economy is planned. There is no hoarding, which is the son of fear, nor is hunger known. The people choose their prince and the people can dispose of him; they also elect the priests. The inhabitants of Utopia loathe war and its honors, although they fiercely defend their frontiers. They have religion that does not offend reason and rejects useless mortifications and forcible conversions. The laws permit divorce but severely punish conjugal betrayals and oblige everyone to work six hours a day. Work and rest are shared; the table is shared. The community takes charge of children while their parents are busy. Sick people get privileged treatment; euthanasia avoids long painful agonies. Gardens and orchards occupy most of the space and music is heard wherever one goes.
punished TORTURED by Conquistadors
(This is one of the most tampered with pictures. It depicts actual events of what took place, and it tells the Truth of What Happened and What the Original Taino people really look like.)
Eduardo Galeano, Memory of Fire, 61
How has the European worldview which Columbus brought to his encounter with the natives of the Americas shaped five hundred years of history? According to Columbus’s log, the Taino Indians were so generous that “if it be asked of them they never say no; on the contrary they invite you to share it and show you as much love as if their hearts went with it.” How then explain the fact that all Taino men, women, and children were ordered to mine a gold tribute of three-quarters of an ounce every three months? Indians who refused had their hands cut off. How can one account for the brutality of a slave system causing such despair that, as Pedro Hernandez Cobas relates, whole families of Tainos flung themselves off cliffs to end their misery? How so from a navigator on a mission of God?
The European race to acquire gold locates a fundamental clash of values—for the European, accumulation (of treasure, currency, land) wins cultural and individual honor. The practice of accumulation, historically the basis of a capitalist economy, was as foreign to the Indian world as the murderous behavior of the strangers. Accumulating abundance for purposes other than to distribute it to the community found no favor with the tribe. The Indian practices of collectivity, sharing, and sexual freedom so captivated the Europeans that they wrote back to the “old world” of encounters with “paradise” and utopia.
While these freedoms attracted the imagination of some Europeans, most found them threatening. The powerful of Europe (Church and State) were undivided in their desire to control the newly “found” lands and peoples. The European worldview is best revealed in the Papal Bull of Alexander VI, which granted by right the lands of the “new world” to Spain and Portugal for the “spread of the Catholic faith.” This document reveals both Church and State’s belief in the legal and ecclesial right of the powerful to take the lands of the less powerful. The one transgression that was punishable by excommunication was not ownership of people and not, obviously, the ownership of land, or for that matter the appropriation of others’ land, because the Papal Bull legitimated the European state’s right to the lands of the Americas. The great sin that merited virtual damnation was for either nation to cross the Pope’s demarcation line and attempt to take the land or inhabitants of the other. The key here is the right (moral and legal) to property (human and nature).
The native worldview had no such concept as private property. Although there were over two thousand indigenous languages and thousands of diverse cultures amongst the Indians, few, if any, of the indigenous language forms had a word to express possession. The Indians of “paradise” could not comprehend what was in store for them when they brought offerings to the strangers. In a few years their sharing would be seen as childlike naiveté. When they resisted the enforced “tribute” of gold, their leaders would be hanged or burned; the less radical punishment would order the resister’s hand or foot to be severed.
The story of Guaironex, a leader of Indians from the La Vega Valley of Santo Domingo, epitomizes the divergent views of relationship (to land, people and things, i.e., treasure) held by Indians and Europeans:
In 1494-95, after Columbus imposed a tribute of gold to be paid by every Taino man, woman, and child, Guaironex went to the first colonizer with a counter offer. Guaironex’s main chiefs gathered over one thousand men with coas [planting sticks] in hand. They offered, if Columbus would drop the gold tribute, to plant all the food the Spanish would ever want to eat. They said to Columbus, “We will feed you here on the island and also all of your people back in Castille. You don’t even need to work.” But of course, the colonizers wanted gold or, in lieu of it, slaves and precious woods.
Lynn Tyler, Two Worlds, quoted in Jose Barreiro, “A Note on Tainos: Whither Progress?” View from the Shore, 7:3, 69
Western moral code demanded an upholding of law which mandated the rights of the emerging nation-states of Europe to acquire property. Accumulation of treasure was the Crown’s objective, and church codes gave the enterprise moral justification. Pillage, execution, destruction of entire communities of native peoples, and enslavement were seen as necessary tactics to “civilize” and “save the souls” of heathens. European society recognized the rights of the powerful (the aristocracy who owned lands) but gave little or no protection to landless serfs and peasants (poor Europeans). Nevertheless, poor Europeans were considered Christians and civilized. Indians were considered “savages” whose refusal to convert to Christianity (and to give up their land and culture) brought upon them whatever “force” was necessary to change their minds. The requerimiento is an example of that.
[The requerimiento was legally required to be read aloud to the Indians notifying them that God, through his Vicar on earth who was the Pope, had given the Spanish King the power to grant them salvation. This document, read to the Indians in Latin, was legally required before all invasions
Note: In Europe, prior to the 1500s, the nation-state as we know it did not exist. Back then, most people did not consider themselves part of a nation; they rarely left their village. If anything, people were more likely to identify themselves with their region or local lord. At the same time, kings often had to depend on the goodwill of their subordinates local feudal lords) to rule. So local feudal lords had a great deal of power, and laws and practices varied a great deal from one part of the country to another.
In the early modern era, a number of monarchs began to consolidate power by weakening the feudal nobles and allying themselves with the emerging commercial classes. This difficult process sometimes required violence. The consolidation of power also took a long time. Kings and queens worked to bring all the people of their territories under unified rule. Not surprisingly, then, the birth of the nation-state also saw the first rumblings of nationalism, as monarchs encouraged their subjects to feel loyalty toward the newly established nations. The modern, integrated nation-state became clearly established in most of Europe during the nineteenth century.
an example: Russia is a great example of consolidation of power by the later-date monarchs – those that usurped the Thrones. Throughout most of the medieval era, what became Russia was a minor principality centered on the city of Moscow. Over the course of a few hundred years, the rulers of Moscow took over more land, eventually expanding to cover much of what is now Russia. This expansion came through a mix of diplomacy and war. When Ivan IV—also known as Ivan the Terrible—came of age and assumed the throne in 1547, he was crowned the first czar. He proceeded to devastate the nobility by means of a secret police and gained the loyalty of commercial classes by giving them positions in a new state bureaucracy. These actions led to the deaths of thousands.
What took place in Russia is only an example of what happened on all regions in Europe, following the papal rule.
These concepts were created by men, whose concepts, beliefs and practices were (and still are) vastly different from ours. And you are not obliged to uphold Any of It!
Its the End of a Looooooong Road, and a Harsh Winter.