All Nations Constitutions Are Trust!
When I started research for AN HEIR TO THE THRONE last year, it struck me as odd that all the World’s Constitutions started around the same period… slowly I being to uncover why.
“We, The People…did not give you permission to Kill, Lynch, Rape and Pillage the World!”
“We (The People) gave some of you the right to establish a trading post (a colony) –that was it!”
We have all heard the phrase “We the People”, and have been lead to believe it referred to the People of a Nation, and in part it does.
However, it is my innerSTANDING that it refers solely to one people. The First People, commonly known as American Indian.
LIAR! (you say). It was written for us! The Patriots! We built this country!
I am not going to argue with “Patriots” (their latest name). Yes, you did build the country into what it is today. You did indeed!
And while we’re at it, here is another bit of truth… The “Black People” are actually the American Indians.
Liar! Liar! Liar! LIAR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! (ahhh America, can’t we all just get along?)
The U.S. government states that the Constitution is a grant of Power. From Who? And to perform what? Corporate functions. Which are Trade, Agreements, Commerce. And remember, the 13 colonies were situated near ports for a reason, Trade.
IMPORTANT Press Release:
The landmass and all its regions are now called Northern Lands, a sovereign (non-state) under the authority of Indigenous Land Owner, Ancient Royalty Sovereign Crown Denderah.
Email / Fax Press Release to Media outlets, Newspapers, Companies, Websites to update the regions listings.
*Norwegians Evacuation and Removal Announcement
– February 25, 2015
Northern Lands Sovereign Crown Denderah Issues Edit – February 20, 2015
A Compass Change for Norway: New role for Norwegians – February 16, 2015
*Norwegian Government Shutdown– February 13, 2015
Indigenous Land Owner Repossess Norway –January 26, 2015
Norway Ordered to Stop Drilling – January 21, 2015
Norway loses $860 Billion Sovereign Wealth Fund to
Indigenous Land Owner – November 13, 2015
Norway Forfeits All Lands and All Resources – November 07, 2014
Nazi Experiments leads to Decolonization of Norway – October 30, 2014
Decolonization Declared (video) – October 23, 2014
The Final Sol-Evolution*
The United Nations and Decolonization (Notice)
A Clear Call for Separation (Pdf)
See, Sovereign Wealth Fund Royalty Interest
[Comment section for further details]
A look at the word Constitution:
constitution (plural constitutions)
- The act, or process of setting something up, or establishing something; the composition or structure of such a thing; its makeup.
- The formal or informal system of primary principles and laws that regulates a government or other institutions.
- A legal document describing such a formal system.http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/constitution
Provide with a constitution, as of a country. “The United States were constitutionalized in the late 18th century”
constitutionalise (incorporate into a constitution, make constitutional)http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=constitutionalize
the state of being allowed by or in agreement with a constitution : the state of being constitutional
CONSTITUTOR, civil law. He who promised by a simple pact to pay the debt of another; and this is always a principal obligation. (Definition taken from Bouvier Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.)
What is UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION? the name of the document that contains the fundamental laws governing the USA (a corporation).
(The territories that were at one time or another part of the British Empire. The British Overseas Territories are underlined in red.)
Constitutional monarchy is a form of democratic government in which a monarch acts as a non-party political head of state within the boundaries of a constitution (pact/ agreement/ contract), whether written or unwritten. While the monarch may hold formal reserve powers and government may officially take place in the monarch’s name, they do not set public policy or choose political leaders. Constitutional monarchies are sometimes referred to as limited monarchies, crowned [representatives of the Royal Crown of England], republics or parliamentary monarchies.
The United Kingdom and fifteen of its former colonies are constitutional monarchies with a Westminster system of government. Three states—Malaysia, Cambodia, and the Holy See—employ true elective monarchies, where the ruler is periodically selected by a small, aristocratic electoral college.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1922 the British Empire held sway over about 458 million people, one-fifth of the world’s population at the time.
A protectorate in its inception adopted by modern international law, is an autonomous territory that is protected diplomatically or militarily against third parties by a stronger state or entity. In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. However, it retains formal sovereignty, and remains a state under international law. A territory subject to this type of arrangement is also known as a protected state. [sounds like the mafia to me.]
Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, has Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning constitutional monarch, and has a royal line of succession in common with the other realms.
A sovereign state is a nonphysical juridical entity of the international legal system that is represented by one centralized government that has supreme independent authority over a geographic area. [such as the United Nations and their Treaties (agreements) with their Nation-States.
(Map: Member states of the United Nations, all of which are sovereign states.)
Emergence of states: The first states came into existence as people “gradually transferred their allegiance from an individual sovereign (king, duke, prince) to an intangible but territorial political entity, of the state“. States are but one of several political orders that emerged from feudal Europe (others being city states, leagues, and empires with universalist claims to authority.
Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of nation-state sovereignty based on territoriality and the absence of a role for external agents in domestic structures. It is an international system of states, multinational corporations, and organizations that began with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
Sovereignty is a term that is frequently misused….
PLEASE PAY ATTENTION! I know this is boring, but you must try to stick with it (and do your own research so that the knowledge will stick withIN you).
Up until the 19th century (1800’s), the radicalized concept of a “standard of civilisation” was routinely deployed to determine that certain peoples in the world were “uncivilised”, and lacking organised societies. [yes, we felt everyone had the ability to self-govern, as it was common knowledge (natural law), you did not kill for fun (sport), poison the air and water, eat people or have sex with animals. We assumed we were dealing with human beings!]
That position was reflected and constituted in the notion that their “sovereignty” was either completely lacking, or at least of an inferior character when compared to that of “civilised” people.” Lassa Oppenheim said “There exists perhaps no conception the meaning of which is more controversial than that of sovereignty. It is an indisputable fact that this conception, from the moment when it was introduced into political science until the present day, has never had a meaning which was universally agreed upon.”
Sovereignty has taken on a different meaning with the development of the principle of self-determination and the prohibition against the threat or use of force, as jus cogens norms of modern international Law.
The Charter of the United Nations is the foundational treaty of the international organization (business) called the United Nations. It was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center in San Francisco, United States, on 26 June 1945 [note the date when things take place]. As a charter, it is a constituent treaty, and all members are bound by its articles. Furthermore, Article 103 of the Charter states that obligations to the United Nations prevail over all other treaty obligations. Most countries in the world have now ratified the Charter. [ List of Member States]
We the People of the United States, in Order to form A More Perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide for the Common Defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
The only TRUTH spoken in the above video is: In 1787, I’m Told…
(we should strive to do a little better than Barney Fife https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yx5d3haRG7M)
After these principles were Spoken into existence, the “Constitution” was later drafted using those same principles to what would later be known as The Constitution of the United States For America.
In 1787, the “Committee of Style and Arrangement” was tasked with getting all of the articles and clauses agreed to by the Convention, and putting them into a logical order.
The Preamble was placed in the Constitution during the last days of the Constitutional Convention (May 25 – September 17, 1787) by the Committee on Style, which wrote its final draft. It was not proposed or discussed on the floor of the convention beforehand. The initial wording of the preamble did not refer to the people of the United States, rather, it referred to people of the various states, which was the norm. In earlier documents, including the 1778 Treaty of Alliance with France, the Articles of Confederation, and the 1783 Treaty of Paris recognizing the colonies independence, the word “people” was not used, and the phrase the United States was followed immediately by a listing of the states, from north to south.
The Preamble, the Constitution’s raison d’être (reason for existence):
Its words are familiar to us today, but because of time, context and word meaning changes; the words are not always easy to follow.
[it also should be noted, the word Constitution does not appear on the document itself. It starts, We the People.]
The remainder of this Topic will examine each sentence in the Preamble, and attempt to explain what how these colonist (With the Church and British Crown) used this instrument to steal the land, and enslave the People.
STRUCTURE OF PREAMBLE
TRUSTOR: We the People [Trustor, Grantor]
(In law a Trustor (also referred to as a settlor, grantor or donor) is a person who settles property on trust law for the benefit of beneficiaries.)
VENUE: of the United States
(This was meant for the colonies which were actually trading post.)
PURPOSE: in Order to form, A More Perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide for the Common Defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty
(We can tell from this statement there were a lot of internal fighting and, The People (of the land), wished to bring all parties together to work towards a common means.)
BENEFICIARY: to ourselves and our Posterity,
(a common means that would benefit themselves (the People) and their posterity (their heirs)
ENABLING ACTION 1: do ordain [Declare, Call forth]
(these two actions can only be done by those who are sovereign to the land.
ENABLING ACTION 2: and establish [Bring into existence]
WHAT: this Constitution(?) ( Or articles of incorporation for a trust.
This is what the colonist turned the First Peoples Declaration (Preamble) into)
TRUSTEE: the United States (
for) of America. [trustee]
(Here they make themselves (and their overlords, London/ Vatican) Trustees. (Trustee (or the holding of a trusteeship) is a legal term which, in its broadest sense, can refer to any person who holds property, authority, or a position of trust or responsibility for the benefit of another)
ANALYSIS OF PREAMBLE
After the Declaration of Independence, but before the ordainment and establishment of the Constitution, the people of America pretty much handled their own affairs using Natural Law, the law of nature; laws which are determined by nature, and is universal). The People of America were not subject to any higher authority other than the authority of the Law of Nature, which was administered by the people themselves (self governance). Although the colonies (trading post) did exist, they only existed by the authority of The People. Where in America every man was a King, and every woman a Queen–and none had any subjects. The colonist were all peers by way of The People.
Transcript of Treaty of Paris (1783): An Excerpt
His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free sovereign and Independent States.
And that all Disputes which might arise in future on the subject of the Boundaries of the said United States may be prevented. (in article 2 they list all the boundaries between the ports of commerce, “states” see attachment.)
It is agreed that Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the Legislatures of the respective States to provide for the Restitution of all Estates, Rights, and Properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British Subjects (servitude); and also of the Estates, Rights, and Properties of Persons resident in Districts in the Possession on his Majesty’s Arms and who have not borne Arms against the said United States. And that Persons of any other Description shall have free Liberty to go to any Part or Parts of any of the thirteen United States and therein to remain twelve Months unmolested in their Endeavors to obtain the Restitution of such of their Estates – Rights & Properties as may have been confiscated. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several States a Reconsideration and Revision of all Acts or Laws regarding the Premises, so as to render the said Laws or Acts perfectly consistent not only with Justice and Equity but with that Spirit of Conciliation which on the Return of the Blessings of Peace should universally prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several States that the Estates, Rights, and Properties of such last mentioned Persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any Persons who may be now in Possession the Bona fide Price (where any has been given) which such Persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said Lands, Rights, or Properties since the Confiscation. And it is agreed that all Persons who have any Interest in confiscated Lands, either by Debts, Marriage Settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful Impediment in the Prosecution of their just Rights.
source: Proclamation of the Treaty of Paris by William Paca, 1784
modern copy: http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=6&page=transcript
Excerpt from the first video:
“1861: the Southern states decided they were tired of being pushed around, and they left the Union. And the original constitution disappeared.”
“1862: the word Person, was redefined. To a legal term meaning a fictional entity.”
“1864: the word State, was redefined. As of 1864, state means the District of Columbia. So whenever you hear a Public Official (police, judge, etc.) say state they do not care what “state” you come from, they are actually talking about the District of Columbia. When you claim Citizenship you claim you are under the jurisdiction of the District of Columbia.”
All corporations are debtors. However, WE, The People are Creditors. (unless you give up your sovereignty and become a citizen!)
IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES
Joint House Resolution 331 (100 Congress)
October 5, 1988
The United States senate acknowledges the contribution of the Iroquois Confederacy of Nations to the development of the United States Constitution and to reaffirm the continuing government-to-government relationship between Indian tribes and the United States established in the Constitution.
house resolution 331 http://www.senate.gov/reference/resources/pdf/hconres331.pdf
…total and utter accountability will be had.
The enabling actions in the Preamble are significant because there is simply nothing in the use of those words to imply that the People relinquished any of their own power and authority. The People declared the law (ordain) without taking away from themselves the authority to declare law again in the future. The European colonist established the Constitution. and articles, and later amendments.
From the context of the Preamble, we can conclude that the laws of the United States do not apply to The People. The People, as ordainers and establishers, those who gave the colonist the right to conduct Commerce (trade/ colonies) in America, are Sovereigns and separate to their corporation, The United States, and cannot be involuntarily subjected to the laws (regulations, corporate policies) of the United States.
Because of the 10th Amendment (“The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people,”) The government has no authority, and cannot assume any authority over the People. Government powers may not reach beyond that which is constitutionally granted. In order for the government to subject The People to its law it is necessary for The People to relinquish their sovereignty. Sovereignty is a natural right which cannot lawfully be relinquished involuntarily. Any removal of sovereignty must be accomplished voluntarily by the subject himself. eg Citizenship, etc.
“Free the slaves,” was the rallying cry, With the Civil War resulting in the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment created a new class of person called “citizen of the United States (voluntary servitude).” Any ex-slave (indentured European) could now claim citizenship, and, by the way, so could any of The People if they so chose. The 14th Amendment made possible the voluntary relinquishment of personal sovereignty.
So, Who Are You? The People or The European Colonist?
Land of Make Believe…
No other time in history has had this much written about it. This time being the end of the Mayan Calender, a 5125 yr cycle. This is also the end of a Galactic cycle, that being 5 x a Mayan cycle, which is the end of a 25 625 year cycle and the much talked about polar shift, thus causing many of the climactic upheavals. But this is the end of an Era, the end of an Age, and the End of Make Believe.
This time is also referred to as ” the Waking of the Dead” and the Resurrection of Divine Law. (*which Roman Law is answerable to.)
Their Nations, Their States, Their Courts
The Supreme Court, that being a Court of the Roman Empire practicing Roman Law, under the authority of the Vatican, under the guise of the ownership of all land, all bodies and all souls, as per Pope Boniface VIII ʻs Papal Bull, Unam Sanctum, of 1302 and in particular Romanus Pontifex of 1455.
A concept of ʻunlimited jurisdictionʼ is based in a deprivation of rights. No entity or system may claim such a privilege as it is always in 100% service to community and therefore answerable to the evolving needs of that community. To assume any other position is to assume rulership. Which is exactly were you
are were (remove presumptions).
CREATING THE ILLUSION
Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by Church leadership, for the government of a Christian organization (Nation), or church and its members.
The way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of Churches Catholic Church (both Latin and Eastern Catholic Churches), Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the Anglican Communion of churches.
In all three traditions, a canon was originally a rule adopted from by Papal Bull; these canons formed the foundation of Canon Law.
Today: Maritime admiralty law considers you a maritime admiralty product, simply because you were birthed out of your mother’s water. A ship sits in its birth until the captain gives a certificate of manifest to the port authorities.
The reason you are required to have a Birth Certificate is because at the time of your birth there is an exchange of money to cover hospital costs. The dock signs your birth certificate simply because that is what the ship is tied to, you will need a dock to sign your birth certificate. Your mother also needs to sign your birth certificate. If you notice on your birth certificate where your mother signed, she is not listed as parent, nor is she listed as mother. Where your mother signed your birth certificate she is known as informant!
Your mother informed the banks that she had just produced another product to be used in commerce. Your actual physical body is owned by England, actually to be more precise, your body is owned by the British Crown. That is the LAW!
It all comes down to this; YOU ARE A MARITIME ADMIRALITY PRODUCT.
Banks and government have control over persons. Only your straw man, the all CAPS (and sometimes not all Caps) thing on a Birth Certificate is able to engage in commerce.
I still do not believe it. Why wasn’t this taught in school?
I know it sounds insane but please be patient.
Be aware of your surroundings and do not take things for granted. Just because you were not taught it in school does not mean it is not real!
Look at your bills, check out your driver’s license, your social security card, utility bills, anything with your name on it.
What do you see?
Any form that is used for business purposes will have YOUR NAME in capital letters.
Once you sign a contract which uses YOUR NAME in capital letters you have given your consent (your energy) to this artificial creation. Now you can be brought into a Court.
Negative misprision is misprision by neglect of duty, notably a duty to report information about a felony or treason.
Positive misprision is maladministration or the commission of other serious offence falling short of actual felony or treason.
1.a neglect or violation of official duty by one in office.
2. failure by one not an accessory to prevent or notify the authorities of treason or felony.
3. a contempt against the government, monarch, or courts, as sedition, lese majesty, or a contempt of court.
4. a mistake; misunderstanding
Misprision, as a comedic device meaning “to mistake one thing for another either verbally or physically, intentionally or not,” is an essential tool of comedies from Aristophanes to Shakespeare to Wilde to Stoppard to…be brief, from the past to the present to the future. “Misprision in the highest degree!” Feste says in Shakespeare’s TWELFTH NIGHT, and misprisions have been at the center of comedies since people first laughed a the doings on a stage.
When you find yourself in a Court you will be asked to stand before the bench. In Latin the term for bench is banco, or more simply put bank. So a judge sits on a bench, they also rule from the bench. In other words the judge rules for the bank. Words have meaning!
What do you mean the Judge rules from the Bank?
Whenever there is a case heard in a Court, somebody is going to pay. That is right the Queen Of England gets a cut from the energy, time, and labor of the American people.
A human being is property! So is a Person, and Natural-Born Person.
Word magick, the legal term of these formentioned names used to describe regular, everyday people have been converted into legalese. There for the use of those in documents can also amount to property. So how do I describe myself? (you say). Who knows! Because as soon as you use a word to describe your true self, they issue a new “legal” form of it turning it into property. So it is best to use your inner judgment and mark, [All words are in Common Use form, not legalese.] or [ All Words are as Affiant describes them.]
So, You are property a Corporation, or many corporations ,depending on the number of agreements under that name. Like pharmaceutical companies, Computer companies, whatever your natural (human) resource can be used for, it properly is.
Must go here to see more Word Tricks:
The first ‘trick’ of the Government is the re-definition of certain critical words in each Statute (Act). They (the Government) want you to presume the ordinary meaning of the word so as to trick you into reading and interpreting the Statute in their favour.
The Jesuit is not a religious order, but specially trained military troops that infiltrate a society (Bankers, All Schools, social services, law enforcement, medicine, etc.) Wherever they are admitted they will bring chaos, disorder, mayhem, and will control the populace to take it over and make it collapse.
Everything is the opposite of what you have been told. The Jesuit are a cult, and are behind the missing children, pedophilia ring, sacrifices and human trafficking.
In 1840 all American history was changed, and what you have left is this present day myth, tooted as history.
They got all our names, titles, and they know Us (family lineage/history), better than we know ourselves. Please take the time to listen to the below interview.
It is the end of the Papal Rule. While Pope Boniface VIII was the first leader in history to create the concept of a Trust, the first Testamentary Trust through a deed and created a Deceased Estate was not until Pope Nicholas V in 1455 through the Papal Bull Romanus Pontifex. This is only one of three (3) papal bulls to include the line with the incipit “For a perpetual remembrance.” This Bull had the effect of conveying the right of use of the land, as Real Property.
A bar association is a professional body of lawyers. Some bar associations are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession in their jurisdiction; Others are professional organizations dedicated to serving their members; in many cases, they are both. In many Commonwealth jurisdictions, the bar association comprises lawyers who are qualified as barristers or advocates in particular, versus solicitors (see bar council). Membership in bar associations may be mandatory or optional for practicing attorneys, depending on jurisdiction.
CESTUI QUE VIE
A Cestui Que Vie Trust, also known by several other pseudonyms such as “Term of Life or Years” or “Pur Autre Vie” or “Fide Commissary Trust” or “Foreign Situs Trust” or “Secret Trust” is a pseudo form of trust first formed in the 16th Century.
CESTUI QUE VIE ((Simply Put)
CESTUI QUE VIE. He for whose life land is holden by another person; the latter is called tenant per auter vie, or tenant for another’s life. Vide Dane’s Ab. Index, h.t.
(A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.)
1. the person whose life measures the duration of an estate
The first issue to be resolved in any court proceeding is that of jurisdiction. Does the one entity have jurisdiction over the other entity? One should never go into court without a clear understanding as to whether he is there as a Citizen (person), or there as one of the People (sovereign, stateless).
If you claim you are a citizen of the United States, then it is strongly implied (though not necessarily true) that you are subject to the laws of the United States. And in that case, get ready to have your teeth kicked-in! Because as a citizen, you are entitled to whatever treatment your Warlords gives you. Many police, judges, lawyers, doctors, teachers, down to the office ( or school) janitor are involved with secret oath societies and their main objective is to keep you (their property) in check!
On the other hand, if you are Citizenless, Nationless, Stateless, then it is legally implied that you are a Lawful King/ Queen. Or peerage to a Lawful King/Queen, and sovereign to the United States (their corporations and International partners). But if you are a Citizen of the State, Nation, Federal Government, the government is sovereign to you, get it? So the only rights, and privileges, you have are those they give you. Which they can take away at any time.
COP LEAVES THE FORCE, DROPS THE LEGAL NAME AND RECLAIMS HER SOUL! http://vimeo.com/102767225
REMOVE ALL Presumptions (THIS IS KEY)
The 12 Presumptions of the Roman Court
A Roman Court is a Forum for the exclusive private business of a Law (Bar) Guild sanctioned by the Roman Cult, also known as the Vatican, in which members of the guild presume certain roles on behalf of the “government” in order to make profit for the guild and its members through direct asset seizure and the commercialization of various securities, bonds and bailments.
The meaning and source of the word “court” in respect of Roman Court is derived from the Latin word cautio meaning “securities, bond and bailment” as the primary commercial business of ancient Roman Cult sanctioned law guilds since the 13th Century.
Prior to the creation of the Bar Associations in the 19th Century, the private Bar Guilds were known as “guilds” as well as “livery” companies and often by the name as Judges and Notaries since the 13th Century coinciding with the invention of Indulgences of the Roman Cult.
In order to make “guild” money, called “Guilt” or “Guilty”, the Private Bar Guilds normally oversee a unique hidden trust for each controversy or “suit” that comes into the private Roman Court. Any bonds that are generated, called “Guilt bonds” are connected to the hidden trust, which the private Bar Guild members are sworn to deny exists.
A Roman Court does not operate according to any true rule of law, but by presumptions of the law. Therefore, if presumptions presented by the private Bar Guild are not rebutted they become fact and are therefore said to stand true. There are twelve (12) key presumptions asserted by the private Bar Guilds which if unchallenged stand true being Public Record, Public Service, Public Oath, Immunity, Summons, Custody, Court of Guardians, Court of Trustees, Government as Executor/Beneficiary, Executor De Son Tort, Incompetence and Guilt:
[Presumptions of Court. READ THEM, and Highlight Key Points]
(i) The Presumption of Public Record is that any matter brought before a lower Roman Cours is a matter for the public record when in fact it is presumed by the members of the private Bar Guild that the matter is a private Bar Guild business matter. Unless openly rebuked and rejected by stating clearly the matter is to be on the Public Record, the matter remains a private Bar Guild mattercompletely under private Bar Guild rules; and
This presumption is rebutted, as this matter is recorded in a Public environment, Public Record and is Public Notice, as indicated by God’s foot sticking out of your ass!
(ii) The Presumption of Public Service is that all the members of the Private Bar Guild who have all sworn a solemn secret absolute oath to their Guild then act as public agents of the Government, or “public officials” by making additional oaths of public office that openly and deliberately contradict their private “superior” oaths to their own Guild. Unless openly rebuked and rejected, the claim stands that these private Bar Guild members are legitimate Public servants and therefore trustees under public oath; and
The possibility of this matter being a private matter is rebutted. All persons and non-persons* engaged in the matter at hand, are deemed to be in Public service, as public servants.
*non-persons referrers to Judges, Prosecutors, other members of the Bar Guild, and Secret Societies who have deemed themselves “Sovereign”. Per those “Sovereign Wealth Funds” being massed-produced by every County, Nation, State, and Governmental body.
[God said, Boo-yah!]
(iii) The Presumption of Public Oath is that all members of the Private Bar Guild acting in the capacity of “public officials” who have sworn a solemn public oath remain bound by that oath and therefore bound to serve honestly, impartially and fairly as dictated by their oath. Unless openly challenged and demanded,the presumption stands that the Private Bar Guild members have functioned under their public oath in contradiction to their Guild oath. If challenged, such individuals must rescue themselves as having a conflict of interest and cannot possibly stand under a public oath; and
The possibility of this is rebutted and all public servants acting on behalf of this matter are required to state all sworn oaths, both Public and private.
(iv) The Presumption of Immunity is that key members of the Private Bar Guild in the capacity of “public officials” acting as judges, prosecutors and magistrates who have sworn a solemn public oath in good faith are immune from personal claims of injury and liability. Unless openly challenged and their oath demanded, the presumption stands that the members of the Private Bar Guild as public trustees acting as judges, prosecutors and magistrates are immune from any personal accountability for their actions; and
This is absolutely rebutted. Any person acting as an agent for a nameless, faceless corporation is wholly personally responsible for their actions on behalf of the corporation. All actions incurring any degree of injury will incur Notice of Injury, including severe Financial penalty.
(v) The Presumption of Summons is that by custom a summons unrebutted stands and therefore one who attends Court is presumed to accept a position (defendant, juror, witness) and jurisdiction of the court. Attendance to court is usually invitation by summons. Unless the summons is rejected and returned, with a copy of the rejection filed prior to choosing to visit or attend, jurisdiction and position as the accused and the existence of “guilt” stands; and
This presumption is absolutely rebutted, on this occasion, on past occasions, and on all future occasions. However, at no time are we absent, nor silent with regard to the matters at hand.
(vi) The Presumption of Custody is that by custom a summons or warrant for arrest unrebutted stands and therefore one who attends Court is presumed to be a thing and therefore liable to be detained in custody by “Custodians”. Custodians may only lawfully hold custody of property and “things” not flesh and blood soul possessing beings. Unless this presumption is openly challenged by rejection of summons and/or at court, the presumption stands you are a thing and property and therefore lawfully able to be kept in custody by custodians; and
This presumption is absolutely rebutted. We are alive and well, we are not things, we are not in custody by Custodians or Guardians. We are not a ‘thing’. We are not the property of the Roman Court or the Roman Empire. Under no circumstances may We be detained in anyway whatsoever, nor at any time, past, present or future.
(vii) The Presumption of Court of Guardians is the presumption that as you may be listed as a “resident” of a ward of a local government area and have listed on your “passport” the letter P, you are a pauper and therefore under the “Guardian” powers of the government and its agents as a “Court of Guardians”. Unless this presumption is openly challenged to demonstrate you are both a general guardian and general executor of the matter (trust) before the court, the presumption stands and you are by default a pauper, and lunatic and therefore must obey the rules of the clerk of guardians (clerk of magistrates court);
We are at all times the General Executor and General Guardian of all our matters including those currently under discussion, and are NOT the subject to a system of debtism, NOT employed by a private banking system and NOT obliged to uphold any laws, judgements, statues, codes, or other thing(s) issued by the private Bar Guild.
*Things is a legal term, by the common law (which is also roman law, admiralty law, maritime law, etc.)
Things, by the common law, are divided into, 1. Things real, which are such as are permanent, fixed and immovable, and which cannot be carried from place to place; they are are usually said to consist in lands, tenements and hereditaments. 2 Bl. Com. 16; Co. Litt. 4 a to 6 b. 2. Things personal, include all sorts of things movable which attend a man’s person wherever he goes. Things personal include not only things movable, but also something more, the whole of which is generally comprehended under the name of chattels. Chattels are distinguished into two kinds, namely, chattels real and chattels personal. See Chattel.
A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856
(viii) The Presumption of Court of Trustees is that members of the Private Bar Guild presume you accept the office of trustee as a “public servant” and “government employee” just by attending a Roman Court, as such Courts are always for public trustees by the rules of the Guild and the Roman System. Unless this presumption is openly challenged to state you are merely visiting by “invitation” to clear up the matter and you are not a government employee or public trustee in this instance, the presumption stands and is assumed as one of the most significant reasons to claim jurisdiction – simply because you “appeared”; and
Absolutely no jurisdiction, at any time, may be claimed by the Private Bar Guild over Us. The office of trustee is rejected. The role of Public servant and government employee is rejected. However, the need for each of us to contribute to the wellbeing of community is acknowledged by Divine Law and our personal and individual will.
(ix) The Presumption of Government acting in two roles as Executor and Beneficiary is that for the matter at hand, the Private Bar Guild appoint the judge/magistrate in the capacity of Executor while the Prosecutor acts in the capacity of Beneficiary of the trust for the current matter. Unless this presumption is openly challenged to demonstrate you are both a general guardian and general executor of the matter (trust) before the court, the presumption stands and you are by default the trustee, therefore must obey the rules of the executor (judge/magistrate); and
This presumption is rebutted. We are General Executor, General Guardian and Beneficiary with regard to all matters pertaining to our flesh and blood individual selves. Whether a fictitious character was created by you has no bearing upon us. We do not acknowledge you, nor your created fiction.
(x) The Presumption of Executor De Son Tort is the presumption that if the accused does seek to assert their right as Executor and Beneficiary over their body, mind and soul they are acting as an Executor De Son Tort or a “false executor” challenging the “rightful” judge as Executor. Therefore, the judge/magistrate assumes the role of “true” executor and has the right to have you arrested, detained, fined or forced into a psychiatric evaluation. Unless this presumption is openly challenged by not only asserting one’s position as Executor as well as questioning if the judge or magistrate is seeking to act as Executor De Son Tort, the presumption stands and a judge or magistrate of the private Bar guild may seek the assistance of bailiffs or sheriffs to assert their false claim; and
This is rebutted. Under no circumstances may the Judge attempt to assume the role of Executor and demand our personal appearance before a court. No appearances will be granted ever! The court is a bank working for the IMF, private insurance companies, and other international franchisors. We will not appear because we are not subjects of you, your laws, your agreements, or your Queen, Pope, or Banking System. Further, we do not own a bank account, bank card, credit cards, passports, drivers licence, social security (insurance) card/ number; or any other instrument denoting participation in your system.
(xi) The Presumption of Incompetence is the presumption that you are at least ignorant of the law, therefore incompetent to present yourself and argue properly. Therefore, the judge/magistrate as executor has the right to have you arrested, detained, fined or forced into a psychiatric evaluation. Unless this presumption is openly challenged to the fact that you know your position as executor and beneficiary and actively rebuke and object to any contrary presumptions, then it stands by the time of pleading that you are incompetent then the judge or magistrate can do what they need to keep you obedient; and
This is rebutted. The Roman Law is under scrutiny for it’s contribution to the current state of the planet, the distribution of rights for some and long extended prison sentences for others. The Roman Court has committed many obstruction and transgressions against Divine Law, to which they are beholden.
The Roman Court system, All its members, and All participants have been judged and damned. God is NOT a forgiving God.
(xii) The Presumption of Guilt is the presumption that as it is presumed to be a private business meeting of the Bar Guild, you are guilty whether you plead “guilty”, do not plead or plead “not guilty”. Therefore unless you either have previously prepared an affidavit of truth and motion to dismiss with extreme prejudice onto the public record or call a demurrer, then the presumption is you are guilty and the private Bar Guild can hold you until a bond is prepared to guarantee the amount the guild wants to profit from you.
This is rebutted. Under no circumstances is a presumption of Guilt allowed. You, Roman Law and its many courts are attempting to transfer their Guilt, by side stepping the issue of designing a corrupt system of servitude upon the unsuspecting People of the World. Therefore under no circumstances may we be detained. Under no circumstances may any financial transaction occur (or attempts be issued), in the favour of the Guild as the claims of the private bank and all of Roman court systems are invalid, null and void, and terminated as issued by God.
Final note, this system is based on making you guilty. It matters not whether you plea Innocent or Not, Your “pleading” is guilt. Be Wise, find them guilty and in default. Ye are Gods!
*In finance, default is failure to meet the legal obligations (or conditions) of an agreement. For example when a corporation or government fails to pay a bond, or honor an agreement. A nations default is the failure (or refusal of a government ) to repay its nations debt.
All jurisdiction over the land by the Roman Empire is hereby null and void. And the Papal rule has been terminated.
As of June 12th, 2011; Romanus Pontifex was officially collapsed, via Ritus Mandamus
and Ritus Probatum, Public Register Number 983210-331235-01004. Also all the Cestui Que Vie Trusts have now been collapsed, as of 15th August 2011, via Ritus Probatum
Regnum and Ritus Mandamus, Public Document number 983210-341748-240014...or so they say.
New Currency Law, effective July 1, 2014
FATCA requires foreign financial institutions (FFI) of broad scope — banks, stock brokers, hedge funds, pension funds, insurance companies, trusts — to report directly to the IRS all clients’ accounts owned by U.S. Citizens and U.S. persons.
It’s become challenging at best and impossible at worst for the 7.6 million Americans living overseas to maintain a bank account where they live. Even the German giant Deutsche Bank recently shut down the account of Carrie Walczak, a woman from upstate New York living in Germany. “If eventually other or all banks follow Deutsche Bank’s lead, it could make my life very difficult,” she tells the Reuters newswire.
Alas, that’s not all FATCA does. Effective with tax year 2011, the law beefed up the reporting requirements if you hold “bank, brokerage or ‘other’” accounts with a total balance of $10,000 or more. You have to put it on your Form 1040 Schedule B for the IRS, and you have to submit a Form TD F 90-22.1, otherwise known as a Foreign Bank Account Report, or FBAR, to the U.S. Treasury.
If your foreign assets total $50,000 or more, the reporting requirements are stiffer. You must report ownership of any non-U.S. securities, any non-U.S. financial instrument or contract held for investment from a foreign issuer (think life insurance or an annuity) and any ownership stake in a foreign entity.
A Few Nations Constitution:
The main principle of many of European Constitution was to limit the monarch’s Power. Here he too, is ruled by government (Church).
France Constitution 1791
(Although this first draft of the constitution was short lived what is interesting to note is that it was created after the collapse of the Absolute Monarchy* of the Ancient Regime (*i.e. Louis XI, Louis XII, etc.)
Note: The preamble of the constitution was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 and establishes France as a secular and democratic country, deriving its sovereignty from the People. Although this first draft of the constitution was short lived what is interesting to note is that it was created after the collapse of the Absolute Monarchy of the Ancient Regime.)
Norway Constitution, May 17, 1814
Denmark Constitution, First written in 1849
(Established a sovereign state in the form of a constitutional monarchy; a democratic government in which a monarch acts as a non-party political head of state within the boundaries of a constitution. In other words, A figure-head only.)
Poland Constitution May 3, 1791
China (Republic of) Constitution, Dec. 25, 1946
(Provisional constitution March 1912. Although their constitution didn’t start in the 1700′-1800’s, their constitution did establish itself as a formed Western-style parliamentary system.)
Belgium Constitution dates back to 1831
Austria Constitution 1848
(it is split up over many different acts)
Exposing the History Myth…You GOT TO Remember!
(also spelled decolonisation) is the undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains dependent territory. The Oxford English Dictionary defines decolonization as “the withdrawal from its colonies of a colonial power; the acquisition of political or economic independence by such colonies.”It can be understood politically (attaining independence, autonomous home rule, union with the metropole or another state) or culturally (removal of pernicious colonial effects.) The term refers particularly to the dismantlement, in the years after World War II, of the colonial empires established prior to World War I throughout the world. [THIS IS KEY, note the date decolonization came to be, and the timeline its affects.]
The United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization has stated that in the process of decolonization there is no alternative to the colonizer’s allowance of self-determination, but in practice decolonization may involve either nonviolent revolution or national liberation wars by pro-independence groups. It may be intramural or involve the intervention of foreign powers acting individually or through international bodies such as the United Nations. Although examples of decolonization can be found as early as the writings of Thucydides, there have been several particularly active periods of decolonization in modern times. These are the breakup of the Spanish Empire in the 19th century; of the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian Empires following World War I; of the British, French, Dutch, Portuguese, Belgian and Italian colonial empires following World War II; of the Russian Empire successor union following the Cold War and others.
Methods and Stages
Decolonization is a political process, frequently involving no violence. [edit is mine. Why? Because you simply need to remove yourself from their system. As the above video notes, you are the commerce this system uses to feed on- Literally. ]In extreme circumstances, there is a war of independence, sometimes following a revolution. More often, there is a dynamic cycle where negotiations fail, minor disturbances ensue resulting in suppression by the police and military forces, escalating into more violent revolts that lead to further negotiations until independence is granted. [remember, you are reading with your third-eye fully engaged. Thus the statement “escalating into more violent revolts… lead to further negotiations… independence is granted. This is their tactic. Provoke a confrontation. To make the other party surrender to a “New Agreement” under their term. so that independence that was granted is them under a new classification. such as Protectorate, or Self-governing Commonwealth associated to…, etc.]
In rare cases, the actions of the pro-independence movements are characterized by nonviolence, with the Indian independence movement led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi being one of the most notable examples, and the violence comes as active suppression from the occupying forces or as political opposition from forces representing minority local communities who feel threatened by the prospect of independence. For example, there was a war of independence in French Indochina, while in some countries in French West Africa (excluding the Maghreb countries) decolonization resulted from a combination of insurrection and negotiation. The process is only complete when the de facto government of the newly independent country is recognized as the de jure sovereign state by the community of nations.
Independence is often difficult to achieve without the encouragement and practical support from one or more external parties. The motives for giving such aid are varied: nations of the same ethnic and/or religious stock may sympathize with the people of the country, or a strong nation may attempt to destabilize a colony as a tactical move to weaken a rival or enemy colonizing power or to create space for its own sphere of influence; examples of this include British support of the Haitian Revolution against France, and the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, in which the United States warned the European powers not to interfere in the affairs of the newly independent states of the Western Hemisphere.
As world opinion became more pro-independence following World War I, there was an institutionalised collective effort to advance the cause of decolonization through the League of Nations. Under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, a number of mandates were created. The expressed intention was to prepare these countries for self-government, but are often interpreted as a mere redistribution of control over the former colonies of the defeated powers, mainly Germany and the Ottoman Empire. This reassignment work continued through the United Nations, with a similar system of trust territories created to adjust control over both former colonies and mandated territories.In referendums, some colonial populations have chosen to retain their colonial status, such as Gibraltar and French Guiana. There are even examples, such as the Falklands War, in which an Imperial power goes to war to defend the right of a colony to continue to be a colony.
Colonial powers have sometimes promoted decolonization in order to shed the financial, military and other burdens that tend to grow in those colonies where the colonial governments have become more benign.Decolonization is rarely achieved through a single historical act, but rather progresses through one or more stages of decolonization, each of which can be offered or fought for: these can include the introduction of elected representatives (advisory or voting; minority or majority or even exclusive), degrees of autonomy or self-rule. Thus, the final phase of decolonisation may in fact concern little more than handing over responsibility for foreign relations and security, and soliciting de jure recognition for the new sovereignty. But, even following the recognition of statehood, a degree of continuity can be maintained through bilateral treaties between now equal governments involving practicalities such as military training, mutual protection pacts, or even a garrison and/or military bases.There is some debate over whether or not the Americas can be considered decolonized, as it was the colonist and their descendants who revolted and declared their independence instead of the indigenous peoples, as is usually the case. Furthermore, included in this list of states where “decolonization” has not occurred as per the ideas reflected above are Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
Four international organizations whose membership largely follows the pattern of previous colonial empires.
Due to a common history and culture, former colonial powers created institutions which more loosely associated their former colonies. Membership is voluntary, and in some cases can be revoked if a member state loses some objective criteria (usually a requirement for democratic governance). The organizations serve cultural, economic, and political purposes between the associated countries, although no such organization has become politically prominent as an entity in its own right.
There is quite a bit of controversy over decolonisation. The end goal tends to be universally regarded as good, but there has been much debate over the best way to grant full independence.
Effects on the colonizers
John Kenneth Galbraith argues that the post–World War II decolonization was brought about for economic reasons. In A Journey Through Economic Time, he writes:
“The engine of economic well-being was now within and between the advanced industrial countries. Domestic economic growth — as now measured and much discussed — came to be seen as far more important than the erstwhile colonial trade…. The economic effect in the United States from the granting of independence to the Philippines was unnoticeable, partly due to the Bell Trade Act, which allowed American monopoly in the economy of the Philippines. The departure of India and Pakistan made small economic difference in the United Kingdom. Dutch economists calculated that the economic effect from the loss of the great Dutch empire in Indonesia was compensated for by a couple of years or so of domestic post-war economic growth. The end of the colonial era is celebrated in the history books as a triumph of national aspiration in the former colonies and of benign good sense on the part of the colonial powers. Lurking beneath, as so often happens, was a strong current of economic interest — or in this case, disinterest.”
In general, the release of the colonized caused little economic loss to the colonizers. Part of the reason for this was that major costs were eliminated while major benefits were obtained by alternate means. Decolonization allowed the colonizer to disclaim responsibility for the colonized. The colonizer no longer had the burden of obligation, financial or otherwise, to their colony. However, the colonizer continued to be able to obtain cheap goods and labor as well as economic benefits (see Suez Canal Crisis) from the former colonies. Financial, political and military pressure could still be used to achieve goals desired by the colonizer. Thus decolonization allowed the goals of colonization to be largely achieved, but without its burdens.
Decolonization is not an easy matter in colonies where a large population of settlers lives, particularly if they have been there for several generations. This population, in general, may have to be repatriated, often losing considerable property. For instance, the decolonisation of Algeria by France was particularly uneasy due to the large European and Sephardic Jewish population (see also pied noir), which largely evacuated to France when Algeria became independent. In Zimbabwe, former Rhodesia, president Robert Mugabe has, starting in the 1990s, targeted white African farmers and forcibly seized their property. In some cases, decolonisation is hardly possible or impossible because of the importance of the settler population or where the indigenous population is now in the minority; such is the case of the British population of the Cayman Islands.Charts of the independences
This list includes formerly non-self-governing territories, such as colonies, protectorates, condominia, and leased territories. Changes in status of autonomy leading up to and after independence are not listed, and some dates of independence may be disputed. For details, see each national history.18th century to World War I
||Thirteen colonies of British America declare their independence a year into a general insurrection. Recognized by Great Britain in 1783 at the Treaty of Paris.
||The French Empire sells Louisiana to the United States for ₣78 million.
||After initially revolting only to restore French control, Saint-Domingue declares its independence as Haiti. Recognized by France in 1825 in exchange for a ₣150 million indemnity, financed through French banks.
||West Florida declares independence, but is almost immediately annexed by the United States as part of Orleans Territory under its claims from the Louisiana Purchase. Annexation recognized by Spain in 1819.
||Paraguay achieves independence. Recognized by Spain in 1880.
|Venezuela declares its independence. During its revolution, first yields, then joins Gran Colombia, before seceding to achieve independence in 1830.
|Cartagena declares its independence. Cundinamarca and the United Provinces of New Granada followed suit in 1813. Briefly retaken by Spain, saved by Simon Bolivar and united as Colombia in 1821. Panama seceded 1903.
||The Federal League declares its independence of the restored Spanish crown, after having successfully revolted against Napoleonic Spain in 1811. Attacked by Portugal, some provinces united with the future Argentina; others, after a protracted struggle, successfully formed Uruguay in 1828. Recognized by Spain in 1870.
||The United Provinces of South America formally declare their independence of the restored Spanish crown, after having successfully revolted against Napoleonic Spain in its name in 1810. Became Argentina in 1826. Recognized by Spain in 1859.
||Chile declares its independence of the restored crown, after having unsuccessfully revolted against Napoleonic Spain in its name in 1810. Recognized by the Spanish in 1844.
||The Adams-Onís Treaty cedes Florida (also called East Florida) to the United States in exchange for US cession of its claims to Texas under the Louisiana Purchase and in exchange for settling $5 million of its residents’ claims against Spain.
||Following a failed liberal insurrection in New Spain, the colony declares its independence as the Mexican Empire after a liberal mutiny succeeds in Spain. Recognized by Spain in 1836. Texas independent in 1836, annexed to the United States in 1845. Upper California and New Mexico lost to the United States in 1848.
|Chiapas and then all of Guatemala declares its independence as part of the Mexican Empire. Independent from Mexico in 1823 as the Federal Republic of Central America. Divided into Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Guatemala in 1838; remnant renamed El Salvador in 1841.
|Santo Domingo declares independence as Spanish Haiti, requests union with Gran Colombia, and is swiftly overrun by Haiti. It will achieve independence in 1844 only to restore Spanish rule in 1861.
|A Chilean expeditionary force declares the independence of Peru. Bolivia formed from Upper Peru in 1825. Recognized by Spain in 1879.
||Greece revolts. Recognized by the Porte in 1832 in the Treaty of Constantinople.
||Quito declares independence as a part of Gran Colombia. Independent from Colombia as Ecuador in 1830. Recognized by Spain in 1840.
||Brazil, long the seat of the Portuguese royal government, declares independence under a rogue prince after the king returns to Lisbon. Recognized by Portugal in 1825.
||Liberia declares its independence as an organized nation.
||Montenegro declares its independence. Recognized in 1878 at the Congress of Berlin. Voluntarily united with Serbia as Yugoslavia in 1918.
||The United States of the Ionian Islands, a majority Greek protectorate, peaceably united with modern Greece by the Treaty of London.
||Santo Domingo regains independence as the Dominican Republic after four years as a restored colony.
||The Russian Empire sells Alaska to the United States for $7.2 million. Attained statehood on January 3, 1959.
||The United Kingdom grants autonomy to Canada. This is popularly considered Canada’s independence day, but Britain retained legal powers over Canada until 1931, and a role in Canada constitutional law until 1982.
||Cuba briefly declares itself independent before being reconquered.
||Serbia declares its full independence from the Ottoman Empire. Recognized in 1878 at the Congress of Berlin. Renamed Yugoslavia in 1918.
||The United Principalities of Romania declare their independence. Recognized in 1878 at the Congress of Berlin.
||The United States (barred from annexing Cuba itself by the Teller Amendment) forces Spain to abjure its own claims to the island in the Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish-American War. Various other Spanish colonies are purchased for $20 million, including the Philippines, which are granted independence in 1934.
||Cuba granted independence. Guantanamo Bay is leased in perpetuity as a US Naval base.
||Bulgaria, largely autonomous since the Congress of Berlin, declares itself fully independent of the Ottoman Empire.
||Albania declares independence. Recognized in the 1913 Treaty of London.
||The independence of Russian Poland as a new kingdom is proclaimed by occupying German and Austro-Hungarian forces. Recognized by Soviet Russia in the 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Absorbed Polish regions from Germany, Austria, and Hungary following World War I and from Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine after the Polish-Soviet War.
||Finland declares its independence. Recognized in the 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, although Karelia remained disputed. Crimean People’s Republic declares independence but Crimean Tatar forces hold out less than a month against the Bolsheviks. Wolga Tatars declare independence of the Idel-Ural State, other ethnic groups including Volga Germans join them. Kazaks declare independence of the Alash Autonomy.
||Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Republic of Georgia and Republic of Armenia declare independence on May 26–28. Occupied by the Soviet Russia in 1920-1921. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania also declare independence. Occupied by the Soviet Union from 1940 to 1991.
||Bohemia, Moravia, and sections of Silesia, Galicia, and Hungary declare their independence as Czechoslovakia. Recognized in the Treaty of Trianon in 1920. Slovakia independent from 1939 to 1945. Carpathian Ruthenia independent in 1939, eventually annexed to Ukraine. Secession of Slovakia in 1993.
|Croatia-Slavonia and Dalmatia declare their independence as the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and swiftly unites with Serbia as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes which later became Yugoslavia.
||End of the protectorate over Afghanistan, when the United Kingdom accepts the presence of a Soviet ambassador in Kabul.
||Communist Mongolian revolutionaries, with the help of the Red Army, expel the Chinese government presence from Outer Mongolia, and Mongolia passes into the heavy influence of the Soviet Union. Mongolia was recognized by the United Nations in 1961.
||In Ireland, following insurgency by the Irish Republican Army, most of Ireland separates from the United Kingdom as the Irish Free State, remaining as a dominion. Northern Ireland, the north-east area of the island, remains within the United Kingdom.
|Egypt is unilaterally granted independence by the United Kingdom. However, four matters (imperial communications, defence, the protection of foreign interests and minorities, as well as Sudan) remain “absolutely reserved to the discretion” of the British government, which greatly restricts the full exercise of Egyptian sovereignty.
||End of the de facto protectorate over Nepal which was never truly colonized.
||The United Kingdom returns the leased port territory at Weihaiwei to China, the first episode of decolonisation in East Asia.
||The Statute of Westminster grants virtually full independence to Canada, the Irish Free State, and the and the Union of South Africa when it declares the British parliament incapable of passing law over these former colonies without their own consent. Doesn’t take effect over New Zealand, Newfoundland, and the Commonwealth of Australia, until independently ratified by these dominions.
||Ends League of Nations Mandate over Iraq. The United Kingdom continues to station troops in the country and influence the Iraqi government until 1958.
||Establishes the Philippine Islands into a Commonwealth under the provisions of the Philippine Independence Act. Abrogates Platt Amendment, which gave it direct authority to intervene in Cuba.
||Lebanon declares independence, effectively ending the French mandate (previously together with Syria) – it is recognized in 1943.
||Ethiopia, Eritrea & Tigray (appended to it), and Italian Somaliland are taken by the Allies after an uneasy occupation of Ethiopia since 1935-36, and no longer joined as one colonial federal state; the Ogaden desert (disputed by Somalia) remains under British military control until 1948.
||Australia ratifies the Statute of Westminster.
||Following a plebiscite, Iceland formally becomes an independent republic on June 17, 1944.
||After surrender of Japan, Korea is occupied by the Soviet Union and the United States.
|After surrender of Japan, Mengjiang, Manchukuo and Taiwan are returned to China.
||Vietnam declares independence, but France does not recognize it until 1954.
||Indonesia declares independence, which the Netherlands does not recognize until December 1949.
||The treaty of Manila is signed, effectively ending over 350 years of foreign domination in the Philippines. United States military bases continued to be stationed in the islands.
||The former emirate of Transjordan (present-day Jordan) becomes an independent Hashemite kingdom when the United Kingdom relinquishes UN trusteeship.
||The former Mandate of Syria becomes an independent Republic.
||New Zealand ratifies the Statute of Westminster.
||The British government leaves British India, which is partitioned into the secular Republic of India and the Muslim state of Pakistan (the eastern half of which will later become independent as Bangladesh).
||In the Far East, Burma and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) become independent. In the Middle East, the state of Israel is formed less than a year after the British government withdraws from the Palestine Mandate; the remainder of Palestine becomes de facto part of the Arab states of Egypt (Gaza strip) and Transjordan (West Bank).
||Republic of Korea is established in the southern part of the Korean peninsula.
||Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is established in the northern part of the peninsula.
||The Dominion of Newfoundland joins Canada.
End of the de facto protectorate over Bhutan.
||Laos becomes independent.
||The Netherlands recognises the sovereignty of Indonesia following an armed and diplomatic struggle since 1945.
||Italy, United Kingdom
||The Mandate of Eritrea is given by the British to Ethiopia.
|Italy, France, United Kingdom
||Libya becomes an independent kingdom.
||The U.S. government [argues that] Puerto Rico in the Antilles becomes a self-governing Commonwealth associated to the U.S. through the creation of the 1952 Constitution for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, which stands as a bilateral pact between two nations. This issue has been under review by the United Nations Special Committee, who continue to urge the United States to expedite self-determination processes for the island.
||France recognizes Cambodia‘s independence.
||Vietnam‘s independence recognized, though the nation is partitioned. The Puducherry enclave is incorporated into India. Beginning of the Algerian War of Independence
||The United Kingdom withdraws from the last part of Egypt it controls: the Suez Canal zone.
||The Bell Trade Act is repealed, providing a more independent market for the Philippines. The Laurel–Langley Agreement is signed to take its place.
||Anglo-Egyptian Sudan becomes independent.
||Tunisia and the sherifian kingdom of Morocco in the Maghreb achieve independence.
||Spain-controlled areas in Morocco become independent.
||Ghana becomes independent, initiating the decolonisation of sub-Saharan Africa.
|The Federation of Malaya became independent.
||Guinea on the coast of West Africa is granted independence.
||Signing of the Alaska Statehood Act by Dwight D. Eisenhower, granting Alaska the possibility of the equal rights of statehood
||UN trustee, the United Kingdom, withdraws from Iraq, which becomes an independent Hashemite Kingdom (like Jordan, but soon to become a republic through the first of several coups d’état).
||Hawaii becomes the fiftieth state in the United States.
||Nigeria, British Somaliland (present-day northern Somalia), and most of Cyprus become independent, though the UK retains sovereign control over Akrotiri and Dhekelia. As the State of Somaliland, the former British Somaliland protectorate merges a few days afterwards with the newly independent Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic.
||Benin (then Dahomey), Upper Volta (present-day Burkina Faso), Cameroon, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, the Mali Federation (split the same year into present-day Mali and Senegal), Mauritania, Niger, Togo and the Central African Republic (the Oubangui Chari) and Madagascar all become independent.
||The Belgian Congo (also known as Congo-Kinshasa, later renamed Zaire and presently the Democratic Republic of the Congo), becomes independent.
||Tanganyika (formerly a German colony under UK trusteeship, merged to federal Tanzania in 1964 with the island of Zanzibar, formerly a proper British colony wrested from the Omani sultanate); Sierra Leone, Kuwait and British Cameroon become independent. South Africa declares itself a republic.
||The former coastal enclave colonies of Goa, Daman and Diu are taken over by India.
||Uganda in Africa, and Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean, achieve independence.
||End of Algerian War, Algeria becomes independent.
||Rwanda and Burundi (then Urundi) attain independence through the ending of the Belgian trusteeship.
||The South Sea UN trusteeship over the Polynesian kingdom of Western Samoa (formerly German Samoa and nowadays called just Samoa) is relinquished.
||Kenya becomes independent.
|Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah (North Borneo) formed Malaysia with the independent Federation of Malaya. Singapore became independent of Malaysia two years later.
||Netherlands New Guinea occupied by Indonesia.
||Northern Rhodesia declares independence as Zambia and Malawi, formerly Nyasaland does the same. The Mediterranean island of Malta becomes independent.
||Southern Rhodesia (the present Zimbabwe) declares independence as Rhodesia, but is not recognized. Gambia is recognized as independent. The British protectorate over the Maldives archipelago in the Indian Ocean is ended.
||In the Caribbean, Barbados and Guyana; and in Africa, Botswana (then Bechuanaland) and Lesotho become independent.
||On the Arabian peninsula, Aden colony becomes independent as South Yemen, to be united with formerly Ottoman North Yemen in 1990–1991.
||Mauritius and Swaziland achieve independence.
||After nine years of organized guerrilla resistance, most of Guinea-Bissau comes under native control.
||Equatorial Guinea (then Rio Muni) is made independent.
||Relinquishes UN trusteeship (nominally shared by the United Kingdom and New Zealand) of Nauru in the South Sea.
||Fiji and Tonga are given independence
|Bahrain, Qatar, Oman and seven Trucial States (the same year, six federated together as United Arab Emirates and the seventh, Ras al-Kaimah, joined soon after) become independent Arab monarchies in the Persian Gulf as the British protectorates are lifted.
||Bangladesh achieves independence from Pakistan with the military help of India.
||The Bahamas are granted independence.
||Guerrillas unilaterally declare independence in the Southeastern regions of Guinea-Bissau.
||Grenada in the Caribbean becomes independent.
||Guinea-Bissau on the coast of West-Africa is recognized as independent by Portugal.
||The Laurel–Langley Agreement is repealed by Ferdinand Marcos.
||The Comoros archipelago in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa is granted independence.
||Angola, Mozambique and the island groups of Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe, all four in Africa, achieve independence. East Timor declares independence, but is subsequently occupied and annexed by Indonesia nine days later.
||Suriname (then Dutch Guiana) becomes independent.
||Released from trusteeship, Papua New Guinea gains independence.
||Seychelles archipelago in the Indian Ocean off the African coast becomes independent (one year after granting of self-rule).
||The Spanish colonial rule de facto terminated over the Western Sahara (then Rio de Oro), when the territory was passed on to and partitioned between Mauritania and Morocco (which annexes the entire territory in 1979), rendering the declared independence of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic ineffective to the present day.
||French Somaliland, also known as the “French Territory of the Afars and the Issas” (after its dominant ethnic groups), the present Djibouti, gains independence.
||Dominica in the Caribbean and the Solomon Islands, as well as Tuvalu (then the Ellice Islands), all in the South Sea, become independent.
||Returns the Panama Canal Zone (held under a regime sui generis since 1903) to the republic of Panama.
||The Gilbert Islands (present-day Kiribati) in the South Sea as well as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Saint Lucia in the Caribbean become independent.
||Zimbabwe (then [Southern] Rhodesia), already independent de facto, becomes formally independent. The joint Anglo-French colony of the New Hebrides becomes the independent island republic of Vanuatu.
||Belize (then British Honduras) and Antigua & Barbuda become independent.
||Canada gains full independence from the British parliament with the Canada Act.
||Saint Kitts and Nevis (an associated state since 1963) becomes independent.
||Brunei sultanate on Borneo becomes independent.
||Australia and New Zealand become fully independent with the Australia Act 1986 and The New Zealand Constitution Act 1986.
||Namibia becomes independent from South Africa.
||The UN Security Council gives final approval to end the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific (dissolved already in 1986), finalizing the independence of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, having been a colonial possession of the empire of Japan before UN trusteeship.
||Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Turkmenistan become independent from the Soviet Union.
Post–Cold War era
History: The first states came into existence as people “gradually transferred their allegiance from an individual sovereign (king, duke, prince) to an intangible but territorial political entity (power structure), of the state”.
A sovereign state is a Nonphysical Juridical Entity of the international legal system that is represented by one centralized government that has supreme independent authority over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood to be a state which is neither dependent on nor subject to any other power or state.
The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact. While according to the declarative theory of state recognition a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states, unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states.
A sovereign wealth fund (SWF) is a state-owned investment fund investing in real and financial assets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, precious metals, or in alternative investments such as private equity fund or hedge funds. Sovereign wealth funds invest globally. Most SWFs are funded by revenues from commodity exports or from foreign-exchange reserves held by the central bank.
Some sovereign wealth funds may be held by a central bank, which accumulates the funds in the course of its management of a nation’s banking system; this type of fund is usually of major economic and fiscal importance. Other sovereign wealth funds are simply the state savings that are invested by various entities for the purposes of investment return, and that may not have a significant role in fiscal management.
The accumulated funds may have their origin in, or may represent, foreign currency deposits, gold, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF/Jesuit) reserve positions held by central banks and monetary authorities, along with other national assets such as pension investments, oil funds, or other industrial and financial holdings. These are assets of the sovereign nations that are typically held in domestic and different reserve currencies (such as the dollar, euro, pound, and yen). Such investment management entities may be set up as official investment companies, state pension funds, or sovereign oil funds, among others.
There have been attempts to distinguish funds held by sovereign entities from foreign-exchange reserves held by central banks. Sovereign wealth funds can be characterized as maximizing long-term return, with foreign exchange reserves serving short-term “currency stabilization”, and liquidity management. Many central banks in recent years possess reserves massively in excess of needs for liquidity or foreign exchange management. Moreover it is widely believed most have diversified hugely into assets other than short-term, highly liquid monetary ones, though almost no data is publicly available to back up this assertion. Some central banks have even begun buying equities, or derivatives of differing ilk (even if fairly safe ones, like overnight interest rate swaps).
The term “sovereign wealth fund” was first used in 2005 by Andrew Rozanov in an article entitled, “Who holds the wealth of nations?” in the Central Banking Journal. The previous edition of the journal described the shift from traditional reserve management to sovereign wealth management; subsequently the term gained widespread use as the spending power of global officialdom has rocketed upward.
Some of them have grabbed attention making bad investments in several Wall Street financial firms such as Citigroup, Morgan Stanley, and Merrill Lynch. These firms needed a cash infusion due to losses resulting from mismanagement and the subprime mortgage crisis.
SWFs invest in a variety of asset classes such as stocks, bonds, real estate, private equity and hedge funds. Many sovereign funds are directly investing in institutional real estate. According to the Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute’s transaction database around US$9.26 billion in direct sovereign wealth fund transactions were recorded in institutional real estate for the last half of 2012. In the first half of 2014, global sovereign wealth fund direct deals amounted to $50.02 bil according to the SWFI.
There is one thing they DON’T TELL YOU about those “government pension funds”. Is that, It Ain’t for You! You are the Citizen (i.e. slave) and they have created themselves as Sovereigns…or so they thought. That presumption has been removed, as they have No Inheritable Blood in them.
See Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sovereign_wealth_fund
DEFINITION OF ‘ROYALTY INTEREST’
In the oil and gas industry this refers to ownership of a portion of the resource or revenue that is produced.
A company or person that owns a royalty interest does not bear any of the costs of the operations needed
to produce the resource, yet the person or company still owns a portion of resource of revenue produced.
More to Come…
Hague Trust Convention (1985)
This Convention specifies the law applicable to trusts and governs their recognition.
For the purposes of this Convention, the term “trust” refers to the legal relationships created – inter vivos or on death – by a person, the settlor, when assets have been placed under the control of a trustee for the benefit of a beneficiary or for a specified purpose.
A trust has the following characteristics –
a) the assets constitute a separate fund and are not a part of the trustee’s own estate;
b) title to the trust assets stands in the name of the trustee or in the name of another person on behalf of the trustee;
c) the trustee has the power and the duty, in respect of which he is accountable, to manage, employ or dispose of the assets in accordance with the terms of the trust and the special duties imposed upon him by Law.
The reservation by the settlor of certain rights and powers, and the fact that the trustee may himself have rights as a beneficiary, are not necessarily inconsistent with the existence of a trust.
CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS
The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into force on 24 October 1945, (Amendments begin in 1963).
The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Charter.
PREAMBLE: The United Nations Charter
WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED
- to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and
- to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and
- to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and
- to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
AND FOR THESE ENDS
- to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and
- to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
- to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and
- to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples,
HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.
United Nations Trusteeship Council
The Trusteeship Council suspended operation on 1 November 1994, [so they say…] with the independence of Palau, the last remaining United Nations trust territory, on 1 October 1994. By a resolution adopted on 25 May 1994, the Council amended its rules of procedure to drop the obligation to meet annually and agreed to meet as occasion required — by its decision or the decision of its President, or at the request of a majority of its members or the General Assembly or the Security Council.
In setting up an International Trusteeship System, the Charter established the Trusteeship Council as one of the main organs of the United Nations and assigned to it the task of supervising the administration of Trust Territories placed under the Trusteeship System. Major goals of the System were to promote the advancement of the inhabitants of Trust Territories and their progressive development towards self-government or independence. The Trusteeship Council is made up of the five permanent members of the Security Council –China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and United States. The aims of the Trusteeship System have been fulfilled to such an extent that all Trust Territories have attained self-government or independence, either as separate States or by joining neighbouring independent countries.
Functions and powers
Under the Charter, the Trusteeship Council is authorized to examine and discuss reports from the Administering Authority on the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the peoples of Trust Territories and, in consultation with the Administering Authority, to examine petitions from and undertake periodic and other special missions to Trust Territories.
[Conclusion, it was not suspended as stated above, but was recreated into something else.]
CHAPTER XII: INTERNATIONAL TRUSTEESHIP SYSTEM
The United Nations shall establish under its authority an international trusteeship system for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed thereunder by subsequent individual agreements. These territories are hereinafter referred to as trust territories.
The basic objectives of the trusteeship system, in accordance with the Purposes of the United Nations laid down in Article 1 of the present Charter, shall be:
- to further international peace and security;
- to promote the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the trust territories, and their progressive development towards self-government or independence as may be appropriate to the particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned, and as may be provided by the terms of each trusteeship agreement;
- to encourage respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion, and to encourage recognition of the interdependence of the peoples of the world; and
- to ensure equal treatment in social, economic, and commercial matters for all Members of the United Nations and their nationals, and also equal treatment for the latter in the administration of justice, without prejudice to the attainment of the foregoing objectives and subject to the provisions of Article 80.
- The trusteeship system shall apply to such territories in the following categories as may be placed thereunder by means of trusteeship agreements:a. territories now held under mandate;
b. territories which may be detached from enemy states as a result of the Second World War; and
c. territories voluntarily placed under the system by states responsible for their administration.
- It will be a matter for subsequent agreement as to which territories in the foregoing categories will be brought under the trusteeship system and upon what terms.
The trusteeship system shall not apply to territories which have become Members of the United Nations, relationship among which shall be based on respect for the principle of sovereign equality.
The terms of trusteeship for each territory to be placed under the trusteeship system, including any alteration or amendment, shall be agreed upon by the states directly concerned, including the mandatory power in the case of territories held under mandate by a Member of the United Nations, and shall be approved as provided for in Articles 83 and 85.
- Except as may be agreed upon in individual trusteeship agreements, made under Articles 77, 79, and 81, placing each territory under the trusteeship system, and until such agreements have been concluded, nothing in this Chapter shall be construed in or of itself to alter in any manner the rights whatsoever of any states or any peoples or the terms of existing international instruments to which Members of the United Nations may respectively be parties.
- Paragraph 1 of this Article shall not be interpreted as giving grounds for delay or postponement of the negotiation and conclusion of agreements for placing mandated and other territories under the trusteeship system as provided for in Article 77.
The trusteeship agreement shall in each case include the terms under which the trust territory will be administered and designate the authority which will exercise the administration of the trust territory. Such authority, hereinafter called the administering authority, may be one or more states or the Organization itself.
There may be designated, in any trusteeship agreement, a strategic area or areas which may include part or all of the trust territory to which the agreement applies, without prejudice to any special agreement or agreements made under Article 43.
- All functions of the United Nations relating to strategic areas, including the approval of the terms of the trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amendment shall be exercised by the Security Council.
- The basic objectives set forth in Article 76 shall be applicable to the people of each strategic area.
- The Security Council shall, subject to the provisions of the trusteeship agreements and without prejudice to security considerations, avail itself of the assistance of the Trusteeship Council to perform those functions of the United Nations under the trusteeship system relating to political, economic, social, and educational matters in the strategic areas.
It shall be the duty of the administering authority to ensure that the trust territory shall play its part in the maintenance of international peace and security. To this end the administering authority may make use of volunteer forces, facilities, and assistance from the trust territory in carrying out the obligations towards the Security Council undertaken in this regard by the administering authority, as well as for local defence and the maintenance of law and order within the trust territory.
- The functions of the United Nations with regard to trusteeship agreements for all areas not designated as strategic, including the approval of the terms of the trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amendment, shall be exercised by the General Assembly.
- The Trusteeship Council, operating under the authority of the General Assembly shall assist the General Assembly in carrying out these functions.
CHAPTER XIII: THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL
- The Trusteeship Council shall consist of the following Members of the United Nations:a. those Members administering trust territories;b. such of those Members mentioned by name in Article 23 as are not administering trust territories; andc. as many other Members elected for three-year terms by the General Assembly as may be necessary to ensure that the total number of members of the Trusteeship Council is equally divided between those Members of the United Nations which administer trust territories and those which do not.
- Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall designate one specially qualified person to represent it therein.
FUNCTIONS and POWERS
The General Assembly and, under its authority, the Trusteeship Council, in carrying out their functions, may:
- consider reports submitted by the administering authority;
- accept petitions and examine them in consultation with the administering authority;
- provide for periodic visits to the respective trust territories at times agreed upon with the administering authority; and
- take these and other actions in conformity with the terms of the trusteeship agreements.
The Trusteeship Council shall formulate a questionnaire on the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of each trust territory, and the administering authority for each trust territory within the competence of the General Assembly shall make an annual report to the General Assembly upon the basis of such questionnaire.
- Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall have one vote.
- Decisions of the Trusteeship Council shall be made by a majority of the members present and voting.
- The Trusteeship Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its President.
- The Trusteeship Council shall meet as required in accordance with its rules, which shall include provision for the convening of meetings on the request of a majority of its members.
The Trusteeship Council shall, when appropriate, avail itself of the assistance of the Economic and Social Council and of the specialized agencies in regard to matters with which they are respectively concerned.
Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories (1945-1999)
The following Territories have been subject to United Nations Trusteeship Agreements or were listed by the General Assembly as Non-Self-Governing. Dates show the year of independence or other change in a Territory’s status, after which information was no longer submitted to the United Nations.
Hauge Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents (1961)
Described by the 1961 ‘Hague Convention Abolishing The Requirements Of Legalization For Foreign Public documents’ as (1) a document which emanates from an authority or an official connected with the courts or tribunals of the State, including those emanating from a public prosecutor, a clerk of a court, or a process server, (2) administrative documents, (3) notarial acts, (4) official certificates placed on documents signed by persons in their private capacity, such as those recording the registration of a document or the fact that it was in existence on a certain date and official and notarial authentication of signatures. Also called public record.
Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/public-document.html#ixzz38rI2J3h4
A History of Hate, A History of Slavery (Pdf)
THE HISTORY OF TODAY’S SLAVERY